Rujukan Ijazah

  1. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Islamic Civilisation in the Balkans, Tirana, Albania, 4-7 December 2003, Ali Çaksu, Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), 2006 - Balkan Peninsula - 207 pages
  2. 1 2 Makdisi, George (April–June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 109 (2): 175–182 [175–77], doi:10.2307/604423 Selenggaraan CS1: Format tarikh (link)
  3. The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2
  4. John Bagot Glubb:
    By Mamun's time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the Caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia.
    (cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization)
  5. Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975, was a Jami'ah ("university" in Arabic) which offered a variety of post-graduate degrees (Ijazah).