Diaspora Belanda Orang Belanda

Rencana utama: Diaspora Belanda

Sejak Perang Dunia II, Emigrasi Belanda terutamnya berhijrah ke Amerika Syarikat, Kanada, Australia, New Zealand, (hingga zaman 1970an) ke Afrika Selatan. Kini pendatang Belanda dapat ditemui di kebanyakan negara terbangun. Di beberapa tanah jajahan dan penelokaan perdagangan Belanda, ada kumpulan etnik terpencil yang mempunyai darah penuh atau separuh Belanda.

Eropah Timur

During the Ostsiedlung, Germans and Dutch settled east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs.[23] After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the 1160s, Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Holland used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburg.[24] From the 13th to the 15th centuries, Prussia invited several waves of Dutch and Frisians to settle throughout the country (mainly along the Baltic Sea coast)[25]

In the early-to-mid 1500s, Mennonites began to move from the Low Countries (especially Friesland and Flanders) to the Vistula delta region in Royal Prussia, seeking religious freedom and exemption from military service.[26] When the Prussian government eliminated exemption from military service on religious grounds, the Mennonites emigrated to Russia. They were offered land along the Volga River. Some settlers left for Siberia in search for fertile land.[27] The Russian capital itself, Moscow, also had a number of Dutch immigrants, mostly working as craftsmen. Arguably the most famous of which was Anna Mons the mistress of Peter the Great.

Historically Dutch also lived directly East of the German border, most have since been assimilated (apart from ~40,000 recent border migrants), especially since the establishment of Germany itself in 1872. Cultural marks can still be found though. In some villages and towns a Dutch Reformed church is present, and a number of border districts (such as Cleves, Borken and Viersen) have towns and village with an etymologically Dutch origin. In the area around Cleves (Ger.Kleve, Du. Kleef) traditional dialect is Dutch, rather than surrounding (High/Low) German. More to the South, cities historically housing many Dutch traders have retained Dutch exonyms for example Aachen (Aken) and Cologne/Köln (Keulen) to this day.

Afrika Selatan

Rencana–rencana utama: Afrikaner, Belanda Cape, Boers, dan Basters
Painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, by Charles Bell.

In South Africa, the Dutch settled the Cape in 1652. Initially the settlement was meant as a re-supply point and way station for Dutch East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and the East Indies. The support station gradually became a settler community. However, the rural inhabitants of the colony soon began to dislike the power held by the Dutch India Company (it stopped the colony's policy of open immigration, monopolized trade, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers into one body, told the farmers what crops to grow, demanded a large percentage of every farmer's harvest, and harassed them.) Slowly these farmers moved away from the Cape, eventually becoming known as 'trekboers', and settled deeper into South Africa and eventually Namibia. Today the Boers and Cape Dutch are known collectively as the Afrikaners, while the descendants of Cape Dutch and local black women are known as the Basters.

Their main language is Afrikaans, a form of creolized Dutch, which was considered a Dutch dialect until the late 19th century. Afrikaans and Dutch are mutually intelligible, though this relation can in some fields (such as lexicon, spelling and grammar) be asymmetric, as it is easier for Dutch-speakers to understand Afrikaans than it is for Afrikaans-speakers to understand Dutch.[28]

Asia Tenggara

Rencana–rencana utama: Indo people dan Burgher

Sejak abad ke-16, telah adanya kehadiran Belanda di Asia Tenggara, Taiwan dan Jepun. Pada banyak kes orang Belanda adalah bangsa Eropah bpertama yang penduduk asli akan bertemu. Di antara 1602 dan 1796, VOC mengirim hampir sejuta Eropah untuk bekerja di Asia.[29] Kebanyakan mati kerana penyakit atau dapat mencari jalan pulang ke Eropah, tetapi sesetengah mereka membuatkan Indies tanah air baru mereka.[30] Interaksi di antara orang Belanda dan penduduk asli terutamanya mengambil tempat di Sri Lanka dan Kepulauan Indonesia moden. Kerap kalinya askar-askar Belanda berkahwin dengan wanita tempatan dan tinggal di tanah jajahan. Dari abad ke abad adanya penduduk bertuturan Belanda yang agak besar yang berketurunan kacukan Belanda dan Indonesia, dikenali sebagai Orang Indo atau Belanda-Indonesia. Pengusiran orang Belanda pada Pemberontakan Indonesia selanjutnya, bermakna bahawa kebanyakan kumpulan kininya menetap di Belanda.

Australia dan New Zealand

Main articles: Dutch New Zealanders, Australians of Dutch descent

Perhaps the most successful integration of Dutch people took place in Australia and New Zealand. After World War II, thousands of Dutch people emigrated to Australia, peaking in the late 1950s and early 1960s. There are 24 Dutch language programs around Australia and weekly and monthly Dutch news papers plus many social, community and religious clubs. Despite these figures, in both Australia and New Zealand Dutch people are highly integrated. Apart from the typical Dutch surnames many descendants bear, they are largely indistinguishable from the largest ethnic groups, the Anglo-Celtic Australians (85%[31]) in Australia and other New Zealand Europeans in New Zealand. One major exception exists though. and this concerns senior citizens of Dutch decent, many of whom (because of old age or dementia) have lost the ability to speak English and fall back on their mother tongue; Dutch. A major social problem as they largely lack a way to communicate. Their children generally do not speak Dutch natively or sufficiently.

Amerika Utara

Fail:Dutch2000.pngPercentage of Dutch Americans per U.S. county according to the 2002 U.S. Census.Fail:Dutch-Americans.jpgA Dutch family in New York (c.1880)
Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Orang Belanda.
Rencana–rencana utama: Dutch Americans dan Dutch Canadians

The Dutch had settled in America long before the establishment of the United States of America.[nb 1] For a long time the Dutch lived in Dutch colonies, owned and regulated by the Dutch Republic, which later became part of the Thirteen Colonies. Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War, in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways.[32]

Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. There have been three American presidents of Dutch descent: Martin van Buren (8th, first president who was not of British descent, first language was Dutch), Franklin D. Roosevelt (32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms) and Theodore Roosevelt (26th).

In Canada 923,310 Canadians claim full or partial Dutch ancestry. The first Dutch people to come to Canada were Dutch Americans among the United Empire Loyalists. The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th century, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west. During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Toronto. While interrupted by World War I, this migration returned in the 1920s, but again halted during the Great Depression and World War II. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Low Countries.

Berkaitan

Rujukan

WikiPedia: Orang Belanda http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f676... http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9036579/Germa... http://prussianpoland.com/neumark.html http://www.bmas.bund.de/BMAS/Redaktion/Pdf/auslaen... http://oit.boisestate.edu/sknox/thesis/chapt4.html http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/351-082.ht... http://www.populstat.info/Asia/indonesc.htm http://www.dutchmalaysia.net/press/Easternization.... http://roepstem.net/francois_boom.html http://www.20eeuwennederland.nl/themas/vreemdeling...